Legal definition of trading account
But today, to reduce market risk, the settlement period is typically two working days. Reducing the settlement period reduces the likelihood of default , but was impossible before the advent of electronic ownership transfer.
The systems by which stocks are traded have also evolved, the second half of the twentieth century having seen the advent of electronic communication networks ECNs. These are essentially large proprietary computer networks on which brokers could list a certain amount of securities to sell at a certain price the asking price or "ask" or offer to buy a certain amount of securities at a certain price the "bid". The first of these was Instinet or "inet" , which was founded in as a way for major institutions to bypass the increasingly cumbersome and expensive NYSE, also allowing them to trade during hours when the exchanges were closed.
Early ECNs such as Instinet were very unfriendly to small investors, because they tended to give large institutions better prices than were available to the public. This resulted in a fragmented and sometimes illiquid market. The next important step in facilitating day trading was the founding in of NASDAQ —a virtual stock exchange on which orders were transmitted electronically. Moving from paper share certificates and written share registers to "dematerialized" shares, computerized trading and registration required not only extensive changes to legislation but also the development of the necessary technology: These developments heralded the appearance of " market makers ": A market maker has an inventory of stocks to buy and sell, and simultaneously offers to buy and sell the same stock.
Obviously, it will offer to sell stock at a higher price than the price at which it offers to buy. This difference is known as the "spread". The market maker is indifferent as to whether the stock goes up or down, it simply tries to constantly buy for less than it sells.
A persistent trend in one direction will result in a loss for the market maker, but the strategy is overall positive otherwise they would exit the business.
Today there are about firms who participate as market makers on ECNs, each generally making a market in four to forty different stocks. Another reform made was the " Small Order Execution System ", or "SOES", which required market makers to buy or sell, immediately, small orders up to shares at the market maker's listed bid or ask. In the late s, existing ECNs began to offer their services to small investors. New brokerage firms which specialized in serving online traders who wanted to trade on the ECNs emerged.
Archipelago eventually became a stock exchange and in was purchased by the NYSE. Moreover, the trader was able in to buy the stock almost instantly and got it at a cheaper price. ECNs are in constant flux. New ones are formed, while existing ones are bought or merged.
As of the end of , the most important ECNs to the individual trader were:. This combination of factors has made day trading in stocks and stock derivatives such as ETFs possible. The low commission rates allow an individual or small firm to make a large number of trades during a single day. The liquidity and small spreads provided by ECNs allow an individual to make near-instantaneous trades and to get favorable pricing.
The ability for individuals to day trade coincided with the extreme bull market in technological issues from to early , known as the Dot-com bubble. In March, , this bubble burst, and a large number of less-experienced day traders began to lose money as fast, or faster, than they had made during the buying frenzy. The NASDAQ crashed from back to ; many of the less-experienced traders went broke, although obviously it was possible to have made a fortune during that time by shorting or playing on volatility.
In parallel to stock trading, starting at the end of the s, a number of new Market Maker firms provided foreign exchange and derivative day trading through new electronic trading platforms. These allowed day traders to have instant access to decentralised markets such as forex and global markets through derivatives such as contracts for difference. Most of these firms were based in the UK and later in less restrictive jurisdictions, this was in part due to the regulations in the US prohibiting this type of over-the-counter trading.
These firms typically provide trading on margin allowing day traders to take large position with relatively small capital, but with the associated increase in risk. Retail forex trading became a popular way to day trade due to its liquidity and the hour nature of the market. The following are several basic strategies by which day traders attempt to make profits. Besides these, some day traders also use contrarian reverse strategies more commonly seen in algorithmic trading to trade specifically against irrational behavior from day traders using these approaches.
It is important for a trader to remain flexible and adjust their techniques to match changing market conditions. Some of these approaches require shorting stocks instead of buying them: There are several technical problems with short sales—the broker may not have shares to lend in a specific issue, the broker can call for the return of its shares at any time, and some restrictions are imposed in America by the U.
Securities and Exchange Commission on short-selling see uptick rule for details. Some of these restrictions in particular the uptick rule don't apply to trades of stocks that are actually shares of an exchange-traded fund ETF. Trend following , a strategy used in all trading time-frames, assumes that financial instruments which have been rising steadily will continue to rise, and vice versa with falling. The trend follower buys an instrument which has been rising, or short sells a falling one, in the expectation that the trend will continue.
Contrarian investing is a market timing strategy used in all trading time-frames. It assumes that financial instruments which have been rising steadily will reverse and start to fall, and vice versa.
The contrarian trader buys an instrument which has been falling, or short-sells a rising one, in the expectation that the trend will change. Range trading, or range-bound trading, is a trading style in which stocks are watched that have either been rising off a support price or falling off a resistance price.
That is, every time the stock hits a high, it falls back to the low, and vice versa. Such a stock is said to be "trading in a range", which is the opposite of trending. A related approach to range trading is looking for moves outside of an established range, called a breakout price moves up or a breakdown price moves down , and assume that once the range has been broken prices will continue in that direction for some time. Scalping was originally referred to as spread trading.
Scalping is a trading style where small price gaps created by the bid-ask spread are exploited by the speculator. A trading account sheet shows the results of the buying and selling of goods.
This sheet is prepared to demonstrate the difference between selling price and cost price. The trading account tally is prepared to show the trading results of the business, e. It records the direct expenses of a business firm. Batlibboi- The Trading Account shows the result of buying and selling goods. In preparing this account, the general establishment charges are ignored and only the transactions in goods are included.
The profit and loss account is a statement that summarizes the revenue's and expense's of an accounting period so as to reflect the changes in various critical areas of a firm's operations.
It records the indirect expenses of a business firm. The balance statement demonstrates the financial position of a business on a specific date. The financial position of a business is found by tabulating its assets and liabilities on a particular date.
The excess of assets over liabilities represents the capital sunk into the business, and reflects the financial soundness of a company.
Now its known as the statement of financial position of the company. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The term for this type of alternative name is a "fictitious" business name. Registering the fictitious name with the relevant government body is often required. A company typically uses a trade name to conduct business using a simpler name rather than using their formal and often lengthier name. Trade names are also used when a preferred name cannot be registered, often because it may already be registered or is too similar to a name that is already registered.
Fictitious business names do not create separate legal entities. Legal agreements such as contracts are normally made using the registered legal name of the business; and the legal name must be used whenever a business sues or is being sued.
In English, trade names are generally treated as proper nouns. In some Canadian jurisdictions , such as Ontario , when a businessperson writes a trade name on a contract, invoice, or cheque, he or she must also add the legal name of the business. Numbered companies will very often operate as something other than their legal name, which is unrecognizable to the public. In Singapore , there is no filing requirement for a "trading as" name, however, there are requirements for disclosure of the underlying business or company's registered name and unique entity number.
In the United Kingdom, there is no filing requirement for a "trading as" name, however, there are requirements for disclosure of the owner's true name and some restrictions on the use of certain names. Oregon uses Assumed Business Names ;  Washington calls DBAs trade names ;  other states refer to trade styles or fictitious business names.
For consumer protection purposes, many U. Note, though, that this is not a substitute for filing a trademark application. A DBA filing carries no legal weight in establishing trademark rights.